The U.S. Agency for International Development’s Pacific American Climate Fund awarded a grant to the College of Micronesia-FSM on March 25, 2015, at the Marine and Environmental Research Institute of Pohnpei office.
The college will receive $556,264 for its Climate Resilient Adoption and Mainstreaming project. The project involves educating community members of climate-resilient agricultural methods in on the island of Yap. Accepting the grant was college researcher Dr. Murukesan Krishnapillai.
According to Krishnapillai, the objective of this project is to “enhance the climate resilience of target communities in Yap; by educating community members on climate-smart agriculture strategies to cope with climate changes and to promote livelihood and food security.”
Krishnapillai said that through a model successfully developed in the village of Gargey on Yap, communities will be trained in small-plot intensive farming, micro-gardening, container home gardening, agroforestry, and integrated farming with livestock.
The Pacific American Climate Fund or PACAMA is a grant-making facility funded by USAID that assists 12 Pacific island countries, including the FSM, to reduce long-term vulnerabilities associated with climate change.
PACAM awards grants to civil society organizations in support of climate change adaptation measures and related “co-benefits,” such as livelihoods enhancement, improved health, food security, improved health, disaster risk reduction, or sustainable natural resources management.
Preventing deforestation has been identified as an important way of fighting climate change, but protecting forests is a challenge as the global demand for agricultural products rises. Tropical forests are particularly threatened by growing demand for soy, palm oil, beef, and wood pulp products. These products are linked not only with unsustainable deforestation, but also illegal logging activities.
Last year saw several major efforts to combat this problem, with many of the biggest consumer goods companies promising to get products associated with tropical deforestation out of their supply chains. McDonalds, Kellogg’s, Nestle and General Mills all signed the New York Declaration on Forests, which aims reach net deforestation by 2020.
But how well are these companies keeping their pro-forest comments?
The latest research into how variations in the atmosphere and oceans combine to produce impacts like recent drought and floods
Drought-related tree mortality: addressing the gaps in understanding and prediction
by Patrick Meir, Maurizio Mencuccini, Roderick C. Dewar
in New Phytologist
Increased tree mortality during and after drought has become a research focus in recent years. This focus has been driven by: the realisation that drought-related tree mortality is more widespread than previously thought; the predicted increase in the frequency of climate extremes this century; and the recognition that current vegetation models do not predict drought-related tree mortality and forest dieback well despite the large potential effects of these processes on species composition and biogeochemical cycling. To date, the emphasis has been on understanding the causal mechanisms of drought-related tree mortality, and on mechanistic models of plant function and vegetation dynamics, but a consensus on those mechanisms has yet to emerge. In order to generate new hypotheses and to help advance the modelling of vegetation dynamics in the face of incomplete mechanistic understanding, we suggest that general patterns should be distilled from the diverse and as-yet inconclusive results of existing studies, and more use should be made of optimisation and probabilistic modelling approaches that have been successfully applied elsewhere in plant ecology. The outcome should inform new empirical studies of tree mortality, help improve its prediction and reduce model complexity.
Traditional African leafy vegetables are valuable for many different reasons. They hold cultural importance, are well adapted to the environments they are grown in, and often have much higher nutritional value than more widely known crops such as lettuce and cabbage, with many being rich in iron, vitamin C and vitamin A. Some vegetables are even used for their medicinal benefits or as nutritional supplements (nutraceuticals), and they are also important sources of income.
In Benin, Bioversity International has been working with national research partners to further investigate the nutritional value of different species such as wild African black plum (Vitex doniana), African eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon) and waterleaf (Talinum triangulare).
India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan along with China account for nearly half of the world’s total groundwater use and these regions are expected to experience serious deficits, says the UN World Water Development Report (WWDR 2015), Water for a Sustainable World 2015 released ahead of World Water Day on 22 March.
Since the start of the Holocene, temperatures in the Arctic have steadily declined. This has been accredited to the orbitally forced decrease in summer insolation reconstructed over the same period. However, here we present climate modelling results from an Earth model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) that indicate that 17–40% of the cooling in the Arctic, over the period 9–0 ka, was a direct result of the desertification that occurred in the Sahara after the termination of the African Humid Period. We have performed a suite of sensitivity experiments to analyse the impact of different combinations of forcings, including various vegetation covers in the Sahara. Our simulations suggest that over the course of the Holocene, a strong increase in surface albedo in the Sahara as a result of desertification led to a regional increase in surface pressure, a weakening of the trade winds, the westerlies and the polar easterlies, which in turn reduced the meridional heat transported by the atmosphere to the Arctic. We conclude that during interglacials, the climate of the Northern Hemisphere is sensitive to changes in Sahara vegetation type.
Ever since 1959/60 with ‘World Refugee Year’ we’ve seen all manner of‘International Years of’ (IYO). These global ‘observances’ are endorsed by the United Nations, an international organisation established after the Second World War and whose noble and worthy objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict. Developing the notion that global problems require global solutions and action – and few issues are more pressing and global than food security – 2015 is the IYO (or on…) Soils (or IYS at it is officially abbreviated).