Lessons learned for involving local people in restoration monitoring

 

A CIFOR scientist (left) inspects Arenillo seeds collected by a Kichwa timber producer. These seeds will be replanted by the farmer to reforest his land in Napo Province, Ecuador. Tomas Munita/CIFOR Photo

A CIFOR scientist (left) inspects Arenillo seeds collected by a Kichwa timber producer. These seeds will be replanted by the farmer to reforest his land in Napo Province, Ecuador. Tomas Munita/CIFOR Photo

Success from the ground up?

by

New global forest restoration initiatives – such as the Bonn Challenge, Initiative 20×20, AFR100, the Convention on Biological Diversity Aichi Targets – present an unparalleled opportunity to reverse the trend of deforestation and forest degradation in the coming years. However, those who work in forest restoration have countless stories of failed projects. How can we minimize these failures, learn from other restoration initiatives and build success from the ground up?

Restoration experts agree: monitoring is essential to restoration success. But is monitoring being given enough attention in the current major global initiatives?

Read the full story: CIFOR

 

RECLAIMING DEGRADED LAND

 

Photo credit: ICRISAT

Women participants with their harvest from crops grown on reclaimed land Photo: S Abdoussalam, ICRISAT

WOMEN FARMERS DOUBLE INCOMES AND ENHANCE HOUSEHOLD NUTRITION BY RECLAIMING DEGRADED LAND

In eastern Niger, 241 hectares of degraded land was converted into productive farms for 10,770 women through the Bio-reclamation of Degraded Lands (BDL) system. This has resulted in a 50% increase in agri-income over non-BDL participants. These impacts are from a mid-term evaluation study conducted at the end of three years of a five-year project.

The results were shared with the local communities in 172 villages in the district of Mayahi (Maradi region) and Kantche (Zinder region) in a series of meetings over the past few months.

The initial results of the impact evaluation conducted by the ICRISAT socio-economics team show that the BDL system had a positive effect on women by giving them access to land and increasing their income. The 0.02 hectare piece of land allocated to each woman in the BDL plot of 1 ha resulted in an average increase in the household income of women participants by 14,345 FCFA (US$26) which is approximately a 50% increase over non-BDL participants. This does not include income from the forestry component, which if added raised the average household income to US$100.

The BDL system has an agroforestry component that incorporates high-value trees and vegetables in a holistic system, with the aim of reversing damage to soils caused by overgrazing and intensive farming. It is a climate-smart technology that helps regenerate the landscape by improving soil fertility through carbon sequestration via tree roots and reducing soil erosion.

The technology developed by ICRISAT had two main components – water harvesting techniques and high-value nutritious trees and annual crops.

Read the full article: ICRISAT

 

Race Against Time to Regreen Africa’s Spreading Desert

 

Photo credit: VOA

A farmer shows his failed crops and farmland in the Megenta area of Afar, Ethiopia, Jan.26, 2016.

Sahel Countries in Race Against Time to Regreen Africa’s Spreading Desert

The areas surrounding the Sahara desert which decades ago were covered with forests, crops and grasslands, can be restored — a significant chunk of them by 2030 — agriculture experts said after viewing the results of a detailed survey of the region.

For the first time, the Sahel area straddling 27 countries has been mapped in painstaking detail showing where and how the work can be done — and just how big the job is to create what is called Africa’s Great Green Wall.

Home to some 232 million people, it stretches coast to coast, from Senegal in the west to Djibouti in the east, and along Africa’s northern shores.

Some 166 million hectares of land have been identified for restoration in the survey — nearly three times the size of Kenya or France.

To halt and reverse the impact of decades of overgrazing and deforestation, around 10 million hectares will need to be restored each year, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which published the map.

4351e443-a528-4429-9c0c-f2de45ed3aaf_w610_r0_s
A farmer in Senegal walks across parched land which used to be a riverbed. – http://gdb.voanews.com/4351E443-A528-4429-9C0C-F2DE45ED3AAF_w610_r0_s.jpg

‘Battle against time’

“It’s a battle against time, because dryland forests are disappearing and climate change is really happening — and more droughts and floods will not make the work easy,” said Nora Berrahmouni, forestry officer for drylands at FAO.

Read the full article: VOA News

Desertification in Central Asia

 

2q

The Socio-Economic Causes and Consequences of Desertification in Central Asia

This book contains a selection of papers presented at the Advanced Research Workshop on a The Socio-economic causes and consequences of desertification in Central Asiaa (TM) held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, in June 2006. The meeting provided a forum for scientists from Central Asia and NATO countries to discuss the human dimensions of the desertification process. Papers presented to the meeting examined recent scientific evidence on the impact of desertification and contributed to the formulation of coherent national and regional policies for the management of watersheds, rangelands, and irrigated agriculture. These issues were examined from the perspective of environmental policy formulation, with respect to overgrazing by livestock, and in terms of a series of case studies of natural resource degradation and desertification control.

A low technology drip irrigation system to water seedlings.

 

kabore_drip_irrigation
Mr Harouna Kaboré, a Mossi farmer from the village Manefyam in the province of Kourwéogo, Burkina Faso

Small is beautiful: Restoring degraded lands, one parcel at a time

The Aichi Biodiversity Targets agreed in Nagoya in 2012 included restoring 15% of the world’s degraded ecosystems by 2020 (Target 15). Subsequent assessments have led to estimates that for terrestrial ecosystems, this 15% means restoring a staggering 350 million hectares – and requires billions of tons of tree seed and trillions of seedlings. 

In the third blog in the CBD COP13 Forest and Landscape Restoration Blog Series, Bioversity International partner, Mr Harouna Kaboré, a Mossi farmer from the village Manefyam in the province of Kourwéogo, Burkina Faso, talks about his experience restoring three hectares of his household’s degraded lands in the context of a newly launched research initiative on nutrition-sensitive forest restoration.

By Marlène Elias and Barbara Vinceti

Mr Kaboré is a 38-year-old farmer and father of seven. In his fields in Manefyam, he displays his skills and experience restoring three hectares of degraded lands through fencing to protect the natural regeneration of trees, selectively tilling, and sowing or selectively planting trees. A self-motivated man, he has planted 2800 trees of value for medicine, nutrition and income over a 10 year period on land that was previously degraded. Due to natural mortality, many of the trees have not survived, but his efforts are relentless. With the support of the burkinabé association tiipaalga, he has also learned about the uses of many species previously unknown to him that now grow in his protected fields; and many species that were previously only encountered in distant areas have also populated these lands. Some came on their own and he no longer has to purchase their goods on the market.

According to Mr Kaboré, in this fenced area, plants grow taller and faster because they are protected from animals. He finds that the high mix of species is beneficial for his trees, and also for the crops growing around the protected area, as the bees living in the cavities of large trees pollinate his crops.

An innovator, Mr Kaboré has devised a low technology drip irrigation system to water his seedlings. Every week, this system slowly but steadily delivers his prized seedlings with 20 liters of water, one drop at a time.

Protecting the environment, empowering people(IFAD)

 

 

https://www.ifad.org/documents/10180/e036916a-9d15-463f-8952-56d1566d7ac8

The Drylands Advantage

Protecting the environment, empowering people 

“Recognition of the true value of ecosystem services, and of the opportunities they offer, will enable better planning and realization of the full economic potential of dryland ecosystems, rebutting the common perception that drylands are ‘economic wastelands’” (IUCN, 2009).

Table of Contents

Acronyms 4

Introduction 5

China: Boosting biodiversity for benefits to people and the environment 9

Jordan: Sustainable land management 15

Nicaragua: Nutrition security in the Dry Corridor in the face of El Niño 21

Senegal: What a little freshwater can do 27

Swaziland: Grass-roots governance beats overgrazing and gully erosion 32

Conclusions and next steps 37

References and resources consulted 39

Poverty, low water availability, deforestation and land degradation are fuelling conflicts, but Kenya greens drylands.

 

Photo credit: IPS News

A Kenya Forestry Research Institute technician pruning an acacia tree at a drylands research site in Tiva, Kitui County. Credit: Justus Wanzala/IPS

Kenya Greens Drylands to Combat Land Degradation

High levels of poverty, low water availability, deforestation and land degradation are fuelling conflicts among communities in East Africa.

Faced with growing degradation that is swallowing large swathes of land in arid and semiarid areas, Kenya is heavily investing in rehabilitation efforts to stave off the threat of desertification.

Charles Sunkuli, secretary of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, says a programme targeting 5.1 million hectares of degraded and deforested land for restoration by 2030 was launched in September 2016. He added that Kenya is increasing its forest cover from the current seven percent to a minimum of 10 percent.

“We have introduced an equalisation fund to help communities living in dry and degraded lands eke out at a living and participate in rehabilitation initiatives,” said Sunkuli.

He was speaking in Nairobi during the Fifteenth Session of the Committee of Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC 15) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which concluded last week.

Afforestration, he noted, will mainly be done in the country’s arid and semiarid areas which make up 80 percent of Kenya’s land cover, although other areas of the country to are being targeted too.

To succeed in its ambitious endeavour, Sunkuli said Kenya is implementing a programme to promote drought-tolerant tree species such Melia volkensii (locally known as Mukau) in the country’s vast drylands to increase forest cover.

Indeed, Kenya is heavily investing in research into drought resistant trees to enhance afforestration of dry lands and improve livelihoods. At Tiva in the dry Kitui County, eastern Kenya, the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) has established a research centre to breed tree species ideal for planting in arid and semiarid areas. The centre is supported by the government in partnership with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

Read the full article: IPS News

Is women’s access to land an indicator for their well-being and empowerment?

 

Photo credit: CGIAR

After the group discussion on land and gender in Volta Region, Ghana. Photo credit: Isabel Lambrecht, IFPRI

Women’s access to land in Ghana: Are we asking the right questions and are we drawing the right conclusions?

lambrecht_isabel

 

With increased recognition of the importance of gender in development, researchers now often collect data disaggregated at the individual or intra-household level, sometimes with a great amount of detail involved. Yet, once in a while we may need to step back and reflect whether we are asking the right questions and whether we are making the right conclusions. In this blog I advocate for the continued use of qualitative research methods to better understand the local context and to enable researchers to better design quantitative survey instruments and interpret the results from quantitative data analysis.

Starting my research on land tenure and gender in Ghana, I complemented the literature review and data analysis with qualitative field work in order to better understand how smallholder farmers gain access to land and how this differs for men and women.  I initially planned to conduct a modest number of group discussions and stakeholder interviews. Yet, this soon appeared insufficient to grapple the diversity of tenure systems and I finally conducted a total of 56 gender-separated group discussions in 7 different regions of Ghana.

woman-enterpreneur-ghana
Woman entrepreneur in Upper-West Region, Ghana, selling fried yam to supplement household income. Photo credit: Isabel Lambrecht, IFPRI – http://pim.cgiar.org/files/2016/11/Woman-enterpreneur-Ghana-300×225.jpg

The first aim of the field work was to understand how smallholder farmers access land in Ghana. To say that customary tenure systems are complex and diverse is not an understatement. In the paper published in Land Use Policy I explain key aspects of customary tenure arrangements in Ghana, and how they can differ even among nearby communities.

The second aim was to understand how and why men’s and women’s access to land differs. By definition, gender is a social construct. In my discussions with household members of both sexes, it quickly became clear that men and women often have different roles in their households, families, communities and markets, and to a large extent this offers a rationale for an unequal distribution of productive assets between men and women.  The analysis of the social norms, rules and perceptions that influence men’s and women’s access to land was published in World Development.

Read the full story: CGIAR

Restoration needs along Africa’s drylands have been mapped and quantified

 

Photo credit: FAO

A farmer transporting hay to Tera weekly market, Tera, Bajirga, Niger.

10 million hectares a year in need of restoration along the Great Green Wall

Restoration needs along Africa’s drylands have been mapped and quantified for the first time

A groundbreaking map of restoration opportunities along Africa’s Great Green Wall has been launched at the UN climate change conference, based on collection and analysis of crucial land-use information to boost action in Africa’s drylands to increase the resilience of people and landscapes to climate change.

“The Great Green Wall initiative is Africa’s flagship programme to combat the effects of climate change and desertification,” said Eduardo Mansur, Director of FAO’s Land and Water Division, while presenting the new map at the COP22 in Marrakech.

“Early results of the initiative’s actions show that degraded lands can be restored, but these achievements pale in comparison with what is needed,” he added during a high-level event at the African Union Pavilion entitled: “Resilient Landscapes in Africa’s Drylands: Seizing Opportunities and Deepening Commitments”.

Mansur hailed the new assessment tool used to produce the map as a vital instrument providing critical information to understand the true dimension of restoration needs in the vast expanses of drylands across North Africa, Sahel and the Horn.

Drawing on data collected on trees, forests and land use in the context of the Global Drylands Assessment conducted by FAO and partners in 2015-2016, it is estimated that 166 million hectares of the Great Green Wall area offer opportunities for restoration projects.

The Great Green Wall’s core area crosses arid and semi-arid zones on the North and south sides of the Sahara. Its core area covers 780 million hectares and it is home to 232 million people. To halt and reverse land degradation, around 10 million hectares will need to be restored each year, according to the assessment. This will be major a contribution to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

The data were obtained by analysing 63 000 half-hectare sample plots spread across the drylands of North Africa, Sahel and the Horn with FAO’s Open Foris Collect Earth tool and very-high-resolution satellite images provided by Google Earth Engine and Bing Maps.

The data collection is a collaborative effort of the African Union, the CILSS/AGRHYMET Regional Centre, the Directorate General of Forests (Tunisia), Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia), FAO, Google and the World Resources Institute.

A great green mosaic

Read the full article : FAO

A message from the UNCCD Secretariat

 

 

Three new publications on Land Degradation Neutrality target setting

102 countries have already committed to translating the global Land Degradation Neutrality target into country-specific targets and actions that generate multiple benefits: from climate change mitigation and adaptation to zero hunger; from ensuring access to clean water to creating decent work and green jobs. The UNCCD Secretariat and the Global Mechanism, in collaboration with close to 20 bilateral and multilateral partners are supporting countries on the LDN target setting journey.

Three new publications have been recently released:

1) Land in Balance is a science-policy brief prepared by the UNCCD Science-Policy Interface (SPI). It gives an overview of the scientific conceptual framework for land degradation neutrality (LDN). The conceptual framework creates a common understanding of the LDN objective and consistency in approaches to achieving LDN.  

EN:

http://www2.unccd.int/sites/default/files/documents/18102016_Spi_pb_multipage_ENG_1.pdf

FR: http://www2.unccd.int/sites/default/files/documents/18102016_Spi_pb_multipage_FR_0.pdf

SP: http://www2.unccd.int/sites/default/files/documents/18102016_Spi_pb_multipage_SP.pdf

2) Scaling up Land Degradation Neutrality Target Setting – From Lessons to Actions: 14 Pilot Countries’ Experiences, distils countries’ real cases and partners’ experiences from the pilot project findings into top lessons and takeaways. It aims to provide easy access to practical solutions for decision makers, country stakeholders and development partners interested in engaging in the LDN target setting process.

http://www2.unccd.int/sites/default/files/documents/18102016_LDN%20setting_final_ENG_0.pdf

3) Achieving Land Degradation at the country level: Building blocks for LDN Target Setting, explains in practical terms how to put the evolving LDN concept into practice. Four building blocks form the basis of the LDN target-setting process, developed with the scientific guidance of the UNCCD Science- Policy Interface (SPI) and feedback received from country Parties and stakeholders.

http://www2.unccd.int/sites/default/files/documents/18102016_LDN%20country%20level_ENG.pdf

Happy reading!

Sara Minelli

Programme Officer

Science, Technology and Implementation Unit

UNCCD Secretariat

Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany

Can dryland people make living tunnels with local (native), drought-tolerant tree species ?

 

autumn-029
The start of something useful and beautiful: a living tunnel – http://kidsinthegarden.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Autumn-029.jpg

LIVING TUNNELS WITH LOCAL TREES

by Prof. Dr. Willem VAN COTTHEM (Ghent University, Belgiuym)

Today I read the interesting article “Fresh water, the reward of land restoration, flows in Ethiopia’s dry zone” at the Agrofirestry World’s blog

(http://blog.worldagroforestry.org/index.php/2016/11/10/water-reward-land-restoration-flows-ethiopias-dry-zone/).

Here are some of the important paragraphs:

  1. Land restoration has brought back water and vibrant colour to a previously bleak and desolate landscape just south of the Sahara.
  2. …it was hard to imagine that 15 years ago this land was bare and unproductive, the people relying on food aid for sustenance.
  3. …how the sophisticated soil and water conservation structures built on the hillsides control the every-present threat of soil erosion. “These structures, together with our regenerated trees and shrubs, ensure that we can make use of every raindrop that falls during the two-month rainy season.”
  4. …farming community has moved from barely surviving to having surplus produce to sell. New economic activities, such as beekeeping and growing fruit trees for sale, have also sprung up in the restored landscape.
  5. …referring to Faidherbia albidas reverse phenology—the tree sheds its leaves in the wet season (when the crop is in the field) and it regains them in the dry season, when fodder is scarece. And its flowers are excellent bee forage for the community’s 50-odd beehives.
  6. Over a thousand hectares of land have been restored here, and naturally regenerated native tree species such as podo (Podocarpus falcatus); African juniper Juniperus procera and Cordia africana are to be found alongside planted exotic species like the nutritionally and economically important avocado.
    The restoration of Geregera catchment focused on soil and water conservation measures. Thanks to the improved ground water recharge, Geregera’s water is today servicing communities living up to 30 km downstream.
  7. …landscape regeneration has brought back numerous natural grasses and native tree species that had disappeared from Mossa. Trees like the sand olive, Dodonaea angustifolia, and bush guarri, Euclea schimperi, are back on the landscape.
  8. Bench terraces with stone stabilization and deep trenches, along with regulated grazing, were used to control land degradation and surface runoff of water in Mossa. These measures helped improve ground water recharge. Today, the native pastoralists have fodder and water for their livestock, thanks to the grasses, shrubs, waterfall and numerous natural springs found in their restored landscape. And the farmers living on the shoulders of the valley have irrigation water.
  9. Lessons learnt: The main ingredients that enabled land restoration in Tigray were political support, community ownership and collective action, the use of by-laws, and partnership.
  10. “We are also supporting farmers with choosing tree species to diversify their farms with and training them in rainwater harvesting,”

 

Focus on some tree species mentioned above

 

(1) Faidherbia albida (Fabaceae)

img_3161-300x200
Crop ready for harvest under a Faidherbia albida tree – http://blog.worldagroforestry.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/IMG_3161-300×200.jpeg

Wikipedia mentions:

Faidherbia is a genus of leguminous plants containing one species, Faidherbia albida, native to Africa and the Middle East. It has also been introduced to Pakistan and India. Common names for it include apple-ring acacia (their circular, indehiscent seed pods resemble apple rings),[1]ana tree, balanzan tree and winter thorn.[2]  It is a thorny tree growing up 6–30 m (20–98 ft) tall and 2 m (6.6 ft) in trunk diameter.The bark is grey, and fissured when old. There are 11,000 seeds/kg. Its deep-penetrating tap root makes it highly resistant to drought. It grows in areas with 250–600 mm (9.8–23.6 in) of rain per year.[4]

The northernmost natural populations are found in relict groves in Israel (in the Shimron nature reserve, near the communal settlement of Timrat). All of the trees in a given grove are genetically identical and seem to have multiplied by vegetative reproduction only, for thousands of years.

Faidherbia albida is important in the Sahel for raising bees, since its flowers provide bee forage at the close of the rainy season, when most other local plants do not.[6]

The seed pods are important for raising livestock, are used as camel fodder in Nigeria,[6] and are relished by elephant, antelope, buffalo, baboons and various browsers and grazers, though strangely ignored by warthog and zebra.[7]

The wood is used for canoes, mortars, and pestles and the bark is pounded in Nigeria and used as a packing material on pack animals. 

Ashes of the wood are used in making soap and as a depilatory and tanning agent for hides. The wood is used for carving; the thorny branches useful for a natural barbed fence.[9] Pods and foliage are highly regarded as livestock fodder. Some 90% of Senegalese farmers interviewed by Felker (1981) collected, stored, and rationed Acacia alba pods to livestock. Zimbabweans use the pods to stupefy fish. Humans eat the boiled seeds in times of scarcity in Zimbabwe.

It is also used for nitrogen fixation, erosion control for crops, for food, drink and medicine. Unlike most other trees, it sheds its leaves in the rainy season; for this reason, it is highly valued in agroforestry as it can grow among field crops without shading them.[2] The leaves from this legume tree are high in nitrogen, and can double yields in maize crops when added to the soil.[10]

The extract is used to treat ocular infections in farm animals.

 

(2) Juniperus procera (Cupressaceae)

7911117844_6901d8064c
2011-0903-ethiopia-amhara-injibara-juniperus-procera-039 – http://farm9.static.flickr.com/8455/7911117844_6901d8064c.jpg

Wikipedia mentions:

Juniperus procera (known by the common English names African juniper, African pencil-cedar, East African juniper, East African-cedar, and Kenya-cedar)[4] is a coniferous tree native to mountainous areas in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. It is a characteristic tree of the Afromontane flora.

Juniperus procera is a medium-sized tree reaching 20–25 m (rarely 40 m) tall, with a trunk up to 1.5–2 m diameter and a broadly conical to rounded or irregular crown. The leaves are of two forms, juvenile needle-like leaves 8–15 mm long on seedlings, and adult scale-leaves 0.5–3 mm long on older plants, arranged in decussate pairs or whorls of three. It is largely dioecious with separate male and female plants, but some individual plants produce both sexes. The cones are berry-like, 4–8 mm in diameter, blue-black with a whitish waxy bloom, and contain 2-5 seeds; they are mature in 12–18 months. The male cones are 3–5 mm long, and shed their pollen in early spring.[5]

Juniperus procera is native to the Arabian Peninsula (in Saudi Arabia and Yemen), and northeastern, eastern, west-central, and south tropical Africa (in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the Republic of the Congo; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; and Zimbabwe)[4]

It is the only juniper to occur south of the equator, and is thought to be a relatively recent colonist of Africa; the species shows very little of the variability associated with a long period of evolution.[6] It is closely related to Juniperus excelsa from southwestern Asia, probably deriving from a common ancestor with that species in southwestern Asia.

It is an important timber tree, used for building houses, for poles, for furniture; bark used for beehives.[8]

 

(3) Cordia africana (Boraginaceae)

cordiaafricanatree
Google: http://tropical.theferns.info/plantimages/C/o/CordiaAfricanaTree.jpg

Wikipedia mentions:

Cordia africana has been used in the manufacture of drums. … It is also sometime called Sudan Teak and has been used for cabinet making, high-quality furniture, veneers and general construction. The wood can be used to manufacture beehives which can be kept in this tree where the bees can live off the plentiful supply of nectar which comes from the flowers. In addition the tree supplies leaves for forage and an edible fruit.[1]

 

(4) Dodonaea angustifolia (Sapindaceae)

693px-dodonaea_viscosa_var_angustifolia_habitus_waterberg
Wikimedia: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Dodonaea_viscosa_var_angustifolia%2C_habitus%2C_Waterberg.jpg/693px-Dodonaea_viscosa_var_angustifolia%2C_habitus%2C_Waterberg.jpg

Wikipedia mentions:

Dodonaea angustifolia, the sand olive, is a slender shrub or small tree that occurs naturally from southern Africa to Arabia, as well as in Australia and New Zealand. The seed capsules are three-winged and are dispersed by wind. Although naturally occurring in rocky areas it is also cultivated to stabilise moving sand and to prevent erosion. Extracts are used as medicine.

 

(5) Euclea schimperi (Ebenaceae)

1280px-euclea_racemosa_-_dune_guarrie_hedge_-_cape_town_3
Google: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c9/Euclea_racemosa_-_Dune_Guarrie_hedge_-_Cape_Town_3.JPG/1280px-Euclea_racemosa_-_Dune_Guarrie_hedge_-_Cape_Town_3.JPG

We found a Wikipedia description for Euclea racemosa:

Euclea racemosa (the Sea Guarrie or Dune Guarrie) is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree that is indigenous to the Indian Ocean coast of Africa from Egypt to South Africa, as well as in Comoros, Oman and Yemen.[1]

Euclea racemosa has leathery foliage that can be exceptionally even and dense – making it an ideal plant for hedges. A dioecious tree (male and female flowers on separate trees), it produces small white flowers, which are followed by red, purple and black fruits that attract birds. The berries are used locally to make “Guarrie vinegar”.


 

co05
Google: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/50a629eee4b0352132c4def9/5677182e1c1210f594dad711/5677d7661c1210f594deea69/1450694502881/co05.jpg

MY RECOMMENDATIONS TO FORM A LIVING TUNNEL

  1. To produce a sufficient number of each of these drought-tolerant tree species
  2. To plant these species in 2 rows over a certain distance, e.g. 50 meter.
  3. To plant the 2 rows at a distance of e.g. 5-7 meter.
  4. To let the trees grow vertically for a certain number of years, until they reach a sufficient height to bend them over towards the opposite row.
  5. To prune the trees so that only the lateral branches in the plane of the 2 rows are left growing.
  6. When the trees are high enough, to bend them over to the opposite row and to bind them to one another in order to form a “living tunnel”.
  7. To continue pruning the living tunnel to densify the covering walls of the tunnel.
  8. To use such living tunnels for growing fresh food in containers (buckets, pots, bottles, drums, sacks, bags, …) inside the shady tunnel.

images
Google: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/63/d3/3e/63d33e519fb75b2e8ca7be044b783049.jpg

edisto-tunnel
Google: http://media.mnn.com/assets/images/2014/04/edisto%20tunnel.jpg

How land restoration has transformed landscapes and livelihoods

 

Photo credit: Agroforestry World

Aba Hawi next to a dam in Tigray

Fresh water, the reward of land restoration, flows in Ethiopia’s dry zone

Success stories of how land restoration has transformed landscapes and livelihoods in four watersheds of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

img_3161-300x200
Crop ready for harvest under a Faidherbia albida tree – http://blog.worldagroforestry.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/IMG_3161-300×200.jpeg

Fresh water — its availability or lack thereof— is a powerful signal of the health of an ecosystem.

On a whirlwind tour of four watersheds in Tigray province, located on the northernmost tip of Ethiopia, we found large and small dams full of clean water, productive boreholes and even waterfalls. People were busy harvesting heavy crops of teff and wheat, and the cows and goats around the trees looked healthy and well fed.

Land restoration has brought back water and vibrant colour to a previously bleak and desolate landscape just south of the Sahara.

The visit was arranged as part of the African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR100) inaugural conference, held from 11-12 October 2016 in Addis Ababa. After discussing plans for restoring 100 million hectares of the continent’s degraded landscapes, 50 international participants were taken to Tigray see what land restoration can do for landscapes and people.

Read the full article: Agroforestry World

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