How planting trees in China created a desert

 

ChinaLandUseThruTime
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China’s growing deserts a major political risk

As desertification in China increases and government efforts to stop the sand’s advance falter, serious political risks are emerging from hub to hinterland.

When most people think of China’s landscape, they envision rivers and rice paddies, yet much of China does not conform to this image. From Tibet and Xinjiang, to the Russian border, the majority of Chinese territory is comprised of desert, grasslands, or arid steppe.

These regions only fell under official Chinese rule during the Qing dynasty, and for most of China’s 5,000 years as a civilization, dynasties and kingdoms have centered around the south-eastern river valleys and coasts.

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The Green Wall of China

Following the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, the country embarked on history’s largest nation building exercise. To this end, vast swathes of China’s forests were felled for fuel, lumber, and paper production for the billions of little red books and proclamations emanating from Beijing. This process was accelerated in the 1960s, as forest and grassland cover shrank, increasing the rate of desertification.

As the deserts grew, the government recognized the threat and began a gargantuan reforestation effort in 1978, planting 66 billion trees to date. This project – colloquially dubbed the ‘Green Wall of China’ – is a multigenerational mega project slated to be completed by 2050.

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How planting trees created a desert

The government introduced fast-growing, but non-native species such as pine and poplar, while simultaneously rooting out local keystone species like sea buckthorn during the 1980s. The removal of sea buckthorn, removed a species playing a vital role in holding the soil together, thus increasing erosion.

The introduced pine and poplar are also very thirsty species, and introducing billions of them into an already arid environment, sunk the water table up to ten times below its original depth. This in turn killed off the shorter roots of prairie grasses, causing further desertification.

Read the full article: Global Risk Insights

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Despite the progress desertification remains a serious issue in China

 

 

Desertification in China reduced over past few years: Research

Desertified and sandified lands have shrunk over the past few years in China, the authorities said today, noting that despite the progress these remain serious issues for the country.

By the end of 2014, there was 2.61 million square kms of desertified area in China, about 27 per cent of the whole territory, down 12,120 square kms from a previous survey in 2009, research by the State Forestry Administration showed.

China has been monitoring desertification and sandification every five years since 1995. By the end of 2014, there was 1.72 million square kilometers of sandified land, about 17.93 per cent of the national territory, down 9,902 square kilometers from 2009, it said. It was in 2004 that desertified areas started to reduce.

 

Read the full story: The Eastern Today

Significant progress in fighting desertification by reforestation in China

More than 400 million people in China are still affected by desertification. It would be nice to see published satellite images showing this progress

 

Progress in fighting desertification

by CNC

China’s forestry authority says the country has made significant progress in fighting desertification.
The area of land desertified or sandified has been decreasing for 10 consecutive years.
Expanding deserts are a global problem. And China is also a victim. Around one-third of the country’s land faces degradation. But it may not necessarily be a losing battle.
After three decades of efforts, the country has made significant progress in stopping the spread of deserts.
On Tuesday, the country’s forestry authority said the area of land desertified or sandificated has been on the decline for 10 consecutive years.
SOUNDBITE (CHINESE): ZHANG JIANLONG, Head of State Forestry Administration
“By the end of 2014, 2.61 million square kilometers of land was desertified across China, 12,120 square kilometers down from in 2009. A total of 1.72 million square kilometers of land was sandified, 9,902 square kilometers less from in 2009. This is the 10th consecutive year that the figures have dropped.”
Despite the progress, the State Forestry Administration has admitted that desertification remains a serious challenge.
More than 400 million people in China are still affected by desertification, struggling to cope with water shortages, unproductive land and the breakdown of ecological systems.

Solar greenhouses to save energy

Photo credit: WVC 1995-1999 – Picture5-Gao-Jia-Van-02b.jpg

Belgian TC-Dialogue Foundation’s Greenhouse project in the Lanzhou region (Gansu Province, P.R. China 1995-1999)

Reinventing the Greenhouse

The modern glass greenhouse requires massive inputs of energy to grow crops out of season. That’s because each square metre of glass, even if it’s triple glazed, loses ten times as much heat as a wall.

However, growing fruits and vegetables out of season can also happen in a sustainable way, using the energy from the sun. Contrary to its fully glazed counterpart, a passive solar greenhouse is designed to retain as much warmth as possible.

Research shows that it’s possible to grow warmth-loving crops all year round with solar energy alone, even if it’s freezing outside. The solar greenhouse is especially successful in China, where many thousands of these structures have been built during the last decades.

Read the full article: Low-Tech Magazine

Use of TerraCottem soil conditioner (TC) in Chinese greenhouses

Photo credit: WVC 1999-11

Use of TC in a Chinese greenhouse in HongHe (Gansu Province (P.R. China)

 

Report of the Chinese partner of a Belgian project set up by the TC-Dialogue Foundation

(1) English translation

(2) Chinese text

presented by Prof. Dr. Willem Van Cotthem (Ghent University – Belgium – Chairman of TC-Dialogue Foundation)

 

1999 TC PROJECT IN CHINA_Fotor

1999 TC PROJECT IN CHINA 1_Fotor

1999 TC PROJECT IN CHINA 2_Fotor

1999 TC PROJECT IN CHINA 3_Fotor

 

Photo WVC: Chinese greenhouse with garlic growing on soil treated with TC.
Photo WVC: Chinese greenhouse with garlic growing on soil treated with TC.
Photo WVC: Commemoration plate of the TC project in Hong He (Gansu Province, P.R. China).
Photo WVC: Commemoration plate of the TC project in Hong He (Gansu Province, P.R. China).
Photo WVC: Backside of the commemoration plate.
Photo WVC: Backside of the commemoration plate.

1999 TC PROJECT IN CHINA 4_Fotor

1999 TC PROJECT IN CHINA 5_Fotor

1999 TC PROJECT IN CHINA 6_Fotor

1999 TC PROJECT IN CHINA 7_Fotor

Has the reforestation effort done little to abate China’s great yellow dust storms ?

China’s Reforestation Programs:
Big Success or Just an Illusion?

China has undertaken ambitious reforestation initiatives that have increased its forest cover dramatically in the last decade. But scientists are now raising questions about just how effective these grand projects will turn out to be.

 Jon R. Luoma, a contributing editor at Audubon, has written about environmental and science topics for The New York Times, and for such magazines as National Geographic and Discover - http://e360.yale.edu/images/features/jon_luoma_yale_e360.jpg

Jon R. Luoma, a contributing editor at Audubon, has written about environmental and science topics for The New York Times, and for such magazines as National Geographic and Discover – http://e360.yale.edu/images/features/jon_luoma_yale_e360.jpg

by jon r. luoma

EXCERPT

In China, major environmental degradation caused by deforestation was apparent even 2,000 years ago, when the great waterway once simply called “The River” was visibly transformed. Tree-felling all along the river’s banks wiped out root systems that held erosion in check, allowing tons of sediments to spread their stains into what has been known ever since as the Yellow River.

In the years after World War II, with its population booming and a massive drive to industrialize in full swing, China became an epicenter of world deforestation, clearing land wholesale for purposes that ranged from growing more food to fueling furnaces for smelting steel. More recently, however, the nation appeared to be reversing that trend, largely with massive campaigns to plant trees. In the first decade of the new millennium, China annually increased its forest cover by 11,500 square miles, an area the size of Massachusetts, according to a 2011 report from the United Nations.

But scientists and conservation groups are beginning to voice concerns about the long-term viability of significant aspects of China’s reforestation push. Of greatest concern is the planting of large swaths of non-native tree species, many of which perish because their water needs are too great for the arid regions in which they are planted. China also is cultivating large monoculture plantations that harbor little biodiversity.

Some international conservation groups, working with Chinese partners, have launched small-scale reforestation and grassland projects using native species, but it remains to be seen whether these ventures can help usher in a new era of more ecologically sound reforestation in China.

Read the full article: Environment 360

Timberland contributed to the planting of two million trees

Photo credit: Timberland

Timberland Plants Two Millionth Tree in China’s Horqin Desert as Part of Its Commitment to Protect The Outdoors

TONGLIAO, China, Sept. 2, 2015 /PRNewswire/ — Global outdoor lifestyle brand Timberland today marked the planting of a total of two million trees in the Horqin Desert, a significant milestone in its ongoing program to tackle desertification in Inner Mongolia. This achievement is a key part of the company’s CSR efforts in Asia, and further demonstrates its continued commitment to protect, create and restore the outdoors and support the communities in which it operates.

In 2001, inspired by the company’s commitment to environmental sustainability, one employee suggested that Timberland play a role in reforesting the Horqin Desert to help tackle the root cause of the sandstorms in her home country of Japan. As a result, Timberland formed a partnership with Green Network, a Japan-based non-profit organization. Fourteen years later, Timberland has contributed more than JPY 120 million (about CNY 6 million at current exchange rates) and 291 days of employee time to support the reforestation project.

“As an outdoor lifestyle brand, protecting and creating a more sustainable environment is not just a nice to have – it makes good business sense. That’s why we’re committed to the responsible design and manufacture of all our products, as well as making the places where we live and work more sustainable,” said John Gearing, Vice President and Managing Director of Timberland & Sportswear, Asia Pacific. “Today’s major achievement of planting two million trees in Horqin signifies our continued commitment to protect the outdoors, not just in the short term, but for future generations.”

Read the full article: The Jakarta Post